Car makers update their test specifications from time to time and the requirements of automotive fabrics normally vary according to where a textile is to be used in a car.
The automobile industry in India has been expanding in a big way. Along with this automotive fabrics’ market share is also rising. Polyester has now become a leading fibre for car manufacture as well. Polyester in various forms like filament, spun and air texturised are commonly used.
Automotive yarn is the yarn used in automobile upholstery. Yarn is 100 % polyester. Yarns should have better pilling, better abrasion and better light fastness.
Types of automotive yarns
There are basically 5 types of yarn:
- Texturised yarn (155/34, 80/34,225/72)
- Air-Texturised yarn (840 dtex, 790 dtex, 650 dtex, 630 dtex, 600 dtex)
- Roto filament yarn (450, 600)
- Spun 100% polyester yarn (2/24)
- Flock yarn.
Texturised yarn is supplied by Reliance Industries Ltd. The denier is 155 and the number of filaments is 34. They are manufactured in normal draw texturising machines.
Air-Texturised yarn is obtained from air texturising machines using the following polyester manufactured by Indorama – Butiburi, Nagpur, and Reliance Industries Ltd.
1.235den and 48 No of filaments
235 den and 68 No of filaments
3..235 den and 34 No of filament
Roto-filament yarn is also manufactured by Reliance Industries Ltd.
Spun 100% polyester yarn is manufactured by RSWM –Lodha, Banswara (Rajasthan), Indorama – Indore (MP)
Flock yarn is a three-component yarn consisting of the carrier thread (technical viscose filament yarn), the acrylate bonding agent and the flock material (Nylon 6.6). It is the latest technology. Flock yarn is not manufactured in India. It is imported from Italy.
All the above yarns are used because they give the fabrics less abrasion, pilling etc. which are required for automotive fabrics used by Maruti, Tata, Honda, General Motors, Toyota and other such car manufacturers
Processing of automotive yarns includes the following steps:
Fabrics made of dyed yarn (knitted or woven)
- Grey fabrics are piece dyed (knitted or woven). Fabrics may be warp knitted using Karl-Mayer knitting machines from Germany or woven on a Dornier loom from Germany attached with Staubli Jacquard from Switzerland
- Texturised yarn is used for warp knitting, spun and air-texturised yarn used for woven fabrics.